WASHINGTON, D.C. (Sept. 25, 2015) — The White House Office of the Press Secretary released several fact sheets that outline recent U.S. China agreements that were made, announced or highlighted during this week’s visit from China President Xi Jinping.
On September 24-25, 2015, President Barack Obama hosted President Xi Jinping of China for a State visit. The two heads of state exchanged views on a range of global, regional, and bilateral subjects. President Obama and President Xi agreed to work together to constructively manage our differences and decided to expand and deepen cooperation in the following areas:
Addressing Global and Regional Challenges
· Afghanistan- The United States and China decided to maintain communication and cooperation with one another on Afghanistan to support peaceful reconstruction and economic development in Afghanistan, support an “Afghan led, Afghan owned” reconciliation process, and promote trilateral dialogue among the United States, China, and Afghanistan. Together with Afghanistan, the United States and China will co-chair a high-level event on Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development on the margins of the UN General Assembly on September 26. This event will convene Afghanistan’s neighbors and the international community to discuss the importance of continuing robust regional and international support for the Afghan government and regional economic cooperation. The United States and China jointly renew their call on the Taliban to enter into direct talks with the Government of Afghanistan. The United States and China also noted their mutual interests in supporting peace, stability, and prosperity in neighboring countries of Afghanistan, and to working in partnership with these countries to promote peace and stability in Afghanistan and the region.
· Peacekeeping– In recognition of the critical role UN and regional peacekeepers serve in maintaining international peace and security, the United States and China affirm to further increase their robust commitments to international peacekeeping efforts. The Chinese side appreciates the U.S. side’s holding of the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping, and welcomes the new contributions to be announced by the United States to support peace operations. The United States welcomes the new contributions to be announced by China to support UN peacekeeping efforts. The United States and China recognize the need to deepen the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations on peace operations. Both sides look forward to an enhanced discussion with the African Union and other partners to further explore proposals to this end. Both sides decided to continue discussions to deepen cooperation on capacity building for troop- and police-contributing countries.
· Nuclear Security- The United States and China commit to deepen their cooperation on nuclear security and to work together to make the Nuclear Security Summit hosted by President Obama next year a success. The two sides plan to hold an annual bilateral dialogue on nuclear security, with the first meeting of the dialogue to be held prior to the 2016 Nuclear Security Summit.
· Wildlife Trafficking- The United States and China, recognizing the importance and urgency of combating wildlife trafficking, commit to take positive measures to address this global challenge. The United States and China commit to enact nearly complete bans on ivory import and export, including significant and timely restrictions on the import of ivory as hunting trophies, and to take significant and timely steps to halt the domestic commercial trade of ivory. The two sides decided to further cooperate in joint training, technical exchanges, information sharing, and public education on combating wildlife trafficking, and enhance international law enforcement cooperation in this field. The United States and China decided to cooperate with other nations in a comprehensive effort to combat wildlife trafficking.
· Ocean Conservation- The United States and China intend to pursue actively cooperation on polar and ocean matters, including projects related to ocean conservation and expanding joint polar research efforts, and will work together on the proposal to establish a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in Antarctica’s Ross Sea. The two sides also plan to support additional bilateral efforts in these fields, including ocean acidification monitoring and a partnership between the coastal cities of Xiamen and Weihai in China and San Francisco and New York in the United States to share best practices to reduce the flow of trash into the ocean.
Strengthening Development Cooperation
The United States and China signed a Memorandum of Understanding that establishes a framework for development cooperation to guide our future collaborative efforts. The MOU recognizes our shared objectives in ending extreme poverty and advancing global development through enhanced collaboration and communication under the principle of development raised, agreed, and led by recipient countries.
· 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United States and China are committed to advance sustainable and inclusive international development as laid out in the new 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, through expanded cooperation to end poverty and hunger and the promotion of inclusive economic growth, and protection of the environment. The two sides intend to communicate and cooperate in implementing the Agenda and to help other countries achieve common development goals.
· Food Security- The United States and China decided to enhance cooperation on global food security. The two sides intend to enhance communication and coordination with the government of Timor Leste and share lessons learned in agricultural development and food security while exploring prospects for further cooperation. Separately, the two sides intend to explore opportunities to cooperate on climate smart agriculture to produce more and better food for growing populations, while building the resilience of smallholder farmers. Such efforts may include technical cooperation, such as on climate friendly irrigation and mechanization for smallholder farmers in Africa to advance our shared interest in addressing the impact of climate change and enhancing food security.
· Public Health and Global Health Security- The United States and China decided to enhance concrete cooperation in public health and global health security, accelerating full implementation of the World Health Organization International Health Regulations and assisting at-risk countries to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. The two sides plan to jointly work with the African Union and African Union Member States in the establishment of the Africa Center for Disease Control and Prevention and collaborate with partner governments in countries in West Africa to strengthen national public health capacities in the wake of Ebola, including strengthening the capacity of the cadres of public health and front line health workers. The two sides intend to enhance communication and exchanges regarding aid for health in West Africa. The two sides plan to continue to support and contribute to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.
· Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response- The United States and China decided to expand cooperation on humanitarian response to disasters. The United States and China plan to participate constructively in the May 2016 World Humanitarian Summit. The two sides plan to expand existing cooperation on disaster response through increased support to multilateral mechanisms, including the United Nations International Search and Rescue Advisory Group. The two sides intend to conduct capacity building cooperation for the post-earthquake reconstruction in Nepal through mechanisms that promote collaboration between the international community and the Government of Nepal.
· Multilateral Institutions. The United States and China intend to expand their collaboration with international institutions to tackle key global development challenges.
Strengthening Bilateral Relations
· Military Relations- Building on the two Memoranda of Understanding on Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) signed by the United States and China in November 2014, the two sides completed new annexes on air-to-air safety and crisis communications. The two sides committed to continue discussions on additional annexes to the Notification of Major Military Activities CBM, with the United States prioritizing completion of a mechanism for informing the other party of ballistic missile launches. The U.S. Coast Guard and the China Coast Guard have committed to pursue an arrangement whose intended purpose is equivalent to the Rules of Behavior Confidence Building Measure annex on surface-to-surface encounters in the November 2014 Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of Defense and the People’s Republic of China Ministry of National Defense.
o The United States and China agree that timely responses should be provided to requests for information and assistance concerning malicious cyber activities. Further, both sides agree to cooperate, in a manner consistent with their respective national laws and relevant international obligations, with requests to investigate cybercrimes, collect electronic evidence, and mitigate malicious cyber activity emanating from their territory. Both sides also agree to provide updates on the status and results of those investigation to the other side, as appropriate.
o The United States and China agree that neither country’s government will conduct or knowingly support cyber-enabled theft of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information, with the intent of providing competitive advantages to companies or commercial sectors.
o Both sides are committed to making common effort to further identify and promote appropriate norms of state behavior in cyberspace within the international community. The United States and China welcome the July 2015 report of the UN Group of Governmental Experts in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International security, which addresses norms of behavior and other crucial issues for international security in cyberspace. The two sides also agree to create a senior experts group for further discussions on this topic.
o The United States and China agree to establish a high-level joint dialogue mechanism on fighting cybercrime and related issues. China will designate an official at the ministerial level to be the lead and the Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, Ministry of Justice, and the State Internet and Information Office will participate in the dialogue. The U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security and the U.S. Attorney General will co-chair the dialogue, with participation from representatives from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S. Intelligence Community and other agencies, for the United States. This mechanism will be used to review the timeliness and quality of responses to requests for information and assistance with respect to malicious cyber activity of concern identified by either side. As part of this mechanism, both sides agree to establish a hotline for the escalation of issues that may arise in the course of responding to such requests. Finally, both sides agree that the first meeting of this dialogue will be held by the end of 2015, and will occur twice per year thereafter.
· Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism- President Obama and President Xi decided to continue expanding law enforcement and anti-corruption cooperation, including by enhancing coordination and cooperation on criminal investigations, repatriation of fugitives, and asset recovery issues. The United States and China welcomed recent progress on repatriating Chinese fugitives and illegal immigrants through charter flights and look forward to continuing this cooperation. The United States welcomes China’s commitment to consider joining the OECD Working Group on Bribery as a participant in the near future. As a new aspect of the Joint Liaison Group’s role as the primary mechanism for law enforcement cooperation, both sides committed to discuss the mutual recognition and enforcement of forfeiture judgments. The two sides condemn all forms of terrorism and committed to expand exchange of information to counter the transnational flow of foreign terrorist fighters. The United States and China held a Counter-Improvised Explosive Devises (IEDs) Workshop on September 14 in Washington, DC, decided on principles for furthering efforts to counter the threat posed by IEDs, and committed to hold a follow-on workshop in China.
· People-to-People Exchange. The United States and China announced two new initiatives to expand the dynamic and positive people-to-people interaction that is the foundation of our bilateral relationship: (1) A 2016 U.S.-China Tourism Year—a cooperative tourism initiative led by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the China National Tourism Administration to expand and shape travel between our countries. This year of collaboration will include events to promote travel between the two countries, support progress on market access, and advance initiatives for both the United States and China to ensure a quality visitor experience for increasing numbers of travelers to and from both nations. (2) A “One Million Strong” initiative led by the 100,000 Strong Foundation that aims to have one million American students studying Mandarin by 2020. “One Million Strong” goals include doubling the number of Mandarin language teachers in the United States through a major investment in teachers colleges; employing technological tools to engage students in underserved and underrepresented communities; and creating “100K Strong States,” a subnational consortium of U.S. governors committed to expanding Mandarin language-learning in their states.
U.S.-China Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change
In November 2014, President Barack Obama and President Xi Jinping stood together in Beijing to make a historic U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change, emphasizing their personal commitment to a successful climate agreement in Paris and marking a new era of multilateral climate diplomacy as well as a new pillar in their bilateral relationship. On the occasion of President Xi’s State Visit to Washington, D.C., the two Presidents reaffirm their shared conviction that climate change is one of the greatest threats facing humanity and that their two countries have a critical role to play in addressing it. The two Presidents also reaffirm their determination to move ahead decisively to implement domestic climate policies, to strengthen bilateral coordination and cooperation, and to promote sustainable development and the transition to green, low-carbon, and climate-resilient economies.
Vision for the Paris Climate Conference:
· The two Presidents reaffirm the U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change of November 12, 2014. Recalling the Durban mandate to adopt a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties, they strengthen their resolve to work together and with others toward an ambitious, successful Paris outcome that furthers the implementation of the objective of the Convention, mindful of the below 2 degree C global temperature goal.
· They reaffirm their commitment to reach an ambitious agreement in 2015 that reflects the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances. They further consider that differentiation should be reflected in relevant elements of the agreement in an appropriate manner.
· Both sides support the inclusion in the Paris outcome of an enhanced transparency system to build mutual trust and confidence and promote effective implementation including through reporting and review of action and support in an appropriate manner. It should provide flexibility to those developing countries that need it in light of their capacities.
· The United States and China welcome the enhanced actions reflected in the intended nationally determined contributions communicated by each other and by other Parties.
· The two sides recognize that Parties’ mitigation efforts are crucial steps in a longer-range effort needed to transition to green and low-carbon economies and they should move in the direction of greater ambition over time. Further, the United States and China underscore the importance of formulating and making available mid-century strategies for the transition to low-carbon economies, mindful of the below 2 degree C global temperature goal. Both sides also emphasize the need for global low-carbon transformation during the course of this century.
· Both sides stress the importance of adaptation. The Paris agreement should accord greater prominence and visibility to adaptation, including by recognizing that it is a key component of the long-term global response to climate change, in terms of both preparing for the unavoidable impacts of climate change and enhancing resilience. The agreement should encourage Parties to work at both the national and international levels to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. It should provide for regular, high-level focus on adaptation.
· The two sides reaffirm that, in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation, developed countries committed to a goal of mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion a year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and that this funding would come from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance. They underscore the importance of continued, robust financial support beyond 2020 to help developing countries build low-carbon and climate-resilient societies. They urge continued support by developed countries to developing countries and encourage such support by other countries willing to do so.
· The two sides also recognize the crucial role of major technological advancement in the transition to green and low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable development and affirm the importance of significant increases in basic research and development in the coming years both within their own economies and globally.
Advancing Domestic Climate Action:
· The United States and China are committed to achieving their respective post-2020 actions as announced in last November’s Joint Announcement. Since that time, both countries have taken key steps toward implementation and are committing to continue intensifying efforts, which will substantially promote global investment in low-carbon technologies and solutions.
· Since last November’s Joint Announcement, the United States has taken major steps to reduce its emissions, and it is announcing important additional implementation plans today. In August 2015, the United States finalized the Clean Power Plan, which will reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector to 32% below 2005 levels by 2030. In 2016, the United States will finalize a federal plan to implement carbon emission standards for power plants in states that do not choose to design their own implementation plans under the Clean Power Plan. The United States commits to finalize its next-stage, world-class fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty vehicles in 2016 and implement them in 2019. In August 2015, the United States proposed separate standards for methane emissions from landfills and the oil and gas sector, and commits to finalize both standards in 2016. In July 2015, the United States finalized significant new measures to reduce use and emissions of HFCs through the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program, and commits today to continue to pursue new actions in 2016 to reduce HFC use and emissions. Finally, in the buildings sector, the United States commits to finalize over 20 efficiency standards for appliances and equipment by the end of 2016.
· China is making great efforts to advance ecological civilization and promote green, low-carbon, climate resilient and sustainable development through accelerating institutional innovation and enhancing policies and actions. China will lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level by 2030 and increase the forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters on the 2005 level by 2030. China will promote green power dispatch, giving priority, in distribution and dispatching, to renewable power generation and fossil fuel power generation of higher efficiency and lower emission levels. China also plans to start in 2017 its national emission trading system, covering key industry sectors such as iron and steel, power generation, chemicals, building materials, paper-making, and nonferrous metals. China commits to promote low-carbon buildings and transportation, with the share of green buildings reaching 50% in newly built buildings in cities and towns by 2020 and the share of public transport in motorized travel reaching 30% in big- and medium-sized cities by 2020. It will finalize next-stage fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty vehicles in 2016 and implement them in 2019. Actions on HFCs continue to be supported and accelerated, including effectively controlling HFC-23 emissions by 2020.
Enhancing Bilateral and Multilateral Climate Cooperation:
· Building on the robust bilateral cooperation initiatives that support the achievement of ambitious domestic actions, the two sides commit to further deepen and enhance these efforts through the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group (CCWG), the premier mechanism for facilitating constructive U.S.-China dialogue and cooperation on climate change. The two sides have made concrete progress in each of the initiatives, including heavy-duty and other vehicles, smart grids, carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), energy efficiency in buildings and industry, collecting and managing greenhouse gas emissions data, climate change and forests, industrial boilers efficiency and fuel switching, and climate-smart/low-carbon cities, and will continue to work together on green ports and vessels and zero emission vehicles, as well as the enhanced policy dialogue and cooperation on HFCs. Furthermore, a new Domestic Policy Dialogue was established this year to share information on respective domestic actions. The two sides will continue to devote significant effort and resources to the existing initiatives. On the CCUS project agreed to in the 2014 Joint Announcement, the two countries have identified the project site in Yan’an-Yulin, Shan’xi Province, China, operated by Shan’xi Yanchang Petroleum. The two sides will continue to collaborate to demonstrate the utilization of CO2 for enhanced water recovery.
· The United States and China recognize and appreciate the critical role of cities, states and provinces in addressing climate change, supporting the implementation of national actions and accelerating the long-term transition to a low carbon and livable society. The Presidents welcome the outcome of the First Session of the U.S.-China Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit, held in Los Angeles on September 15-16, 2015, and look forward to a successful Second Session to be held in Beijing in 2016. The Presidents support the U.S.-China Climate Leaders Declaration, signed by 24 provinces, states, cities, and counties of the United States and China, as well as the climate actions listed in the Declaration, including an initiative by provinces and cities in China for peaking pioneers and the medium and long-term greenhouse gas reduction targets of states, counties and cities in the United States. The United States and China also emphasize that businesses can play an important role in promoting low-carbon development, and will make continued efforts to encourage and incentivize actions by businesses.
· The United States and China recognize the importance of mobilizing climate finance to support low-carbon, climate-resilient development in developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, small island developing states, and African countries. In this connection, the United States reaffirms its $3 billion pledge to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and China announces that it will make available ¥20 billion for setting up the China South-South Climate Cooperation Fund to support other developing countries to combat climate change, including to enhance their capacity to access GCF funds. Going forward and through these steps and other actions, the two sides are determined to work constructively and cooperatively together and along with all Parties to the UNFCCC to support developing countries to transition to green and low-carbon development and build climate resilience.
· The United States and China consider that their bilateral investments in other countries should support low-carbon technologies and climate resilience and commit to discussing the role of public finance in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Both countries are to use public resources to finance and encourage the transition toward low-carbon technologies as a priority. As part of an ongoing and serious commitment to strengthen low-carbon policies and regulations, the United States has ended public financing for new conventional coal-fired power plants except in the poorest countries. China will strengthen green and low-carbon policies and regulations with a view to strictly controlling public investment flowing into projects with high pollution and carbon emissions both domestically and internationally.
· The United States and China will strengthen their dialogue and cooperation to advance climate change related issues in relevant fora complementary to the UNFCCC, such as the G-20, Montreal Protocol, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, World Trade Organization and Clean Energy Ministerial.
The United States and China recognize their shared interest in promoting a strong and open global economy, inclusive growth and sustainable development, and a stable international financial system, supported by the multilateral economic institutions founded at the end of World War II that have benefited the peoples of both nations. Both countries recognize and value the substantial contributions that the international financial institutions have made to global growth, higher incomes, the alleviation of poverty, and the maintenance of financial stability since their establishment. The rules-based international economic system has helped to propel China’s unprecedented economic growth over the past 35 years, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. The United States has also benefited from the emergence of a global middle class that, by 2030, is projected to include more than 3 billion consumers in Asia alone. U.S. exports of goods and services supported approximately 12 million jobs in the United States in 2014. China has a strong stake in the maintenance and further strengthening and modernization of global financial institutions, and the United States welcomes China’s growing contributions to financing development and infrastructure in Asia and beyond. The international financial architecture has evolved over time to meet the changing scale, scope, and diversity of challenges and to include new institutions as they incorporate its core principles of high standards and good governance. Both countries are committed to supporting this international architecture and welcome the greater role of the G-20 in global economic governance to ensure an inclusive, resilient, and constantly improving international economic architecture to meet challenges now and in the future. In light of China’s increased share of global economic activity and increased capacity, the United States welcomes China playing a more active role in and taking on due responsibility for the international financial architecture, as well as expanded bilateral cooperation to address global economic challenges. To this end:
o The United States and China commit to strengthening and modernizing the multilateral development financing system. Both countries resolve to further strengthen the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank, and Inter-American Development Bank by enhancing their financial capacity, reforming their governance, and improving their effectiveness and efficiency. Consistent with its development, in addition to being a shareholder and borrower, China intends to meaningfully increase its role as a donor in all these institutions. Both sides acknowledge that for new and future institutions to be significant contributors to the international financial architecture, these institutions, like the existing international financial institutions, are to be properly structured and operated in line with the principles of professionalism, transparency, efficiency, and effectiveness, and with the existing high environmental and governance standards, recognizing that these standards continuously evolve and improve.
o The United States and China reaffirm the importance of the MDBs in meeting the needs of the poorest countries through robust financial contributions to the International Development Association, Asian Development Fund, and African Development Fund. China is to meaningfully increase its contributions to the MDB concessional windows, consistent with its capacity. Both countries commit that the MDBs should continue to explore options to increase their lending capacity, including through using existing resources, and regularly reviewing their capital with an assessment of whether a capital increase is warranted. Both countries commit to continued efforts on MDB balance sheet optimization. The United States and China commit to collaborate on the World Bank shareholding review roadmap, including development of a shareholding formula and review of the World Bank’s capital needs in 2017. Both sides also recognize that the middle income countries still face challenges in alleviating poverty and that the MDBs have a role in addressing those specific needs.
o The United States and China commit to strengthen their cooperation in the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and continue to improve the IMF’s quota and governance structure. The United States commits to implement the 2010 IMF quota and governance reforms as soon as possible and reaffirms that the distribution of quotas should continue to shift toward dynamic emerging markets and developing countries to better reflect the relative weight of IMF members in the world economy. The United States and China affirm the efforts of the IMF Executive Board to pursue an interim solution, which aims to converge quota shares to the extent possible to the levels decided under the 14th Review. However, the interim solution should not constitute or be seen in any way as a substitute for the 2010 reforms. The United States and China are to support the Executive Board’s work on the 15th Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula, using the 14th Review as a basis.
o The United States and China commit to development finance cooperation in a third country through the multilateral development banks, respecting the ownership of the recipient countries.
o The United States welcomes China’s commitment to release economic data following the IMF’s Special Data Dissemination Standards (SDDS) by the end of the year and welcomes China’s continued efforts to enhance transparency. China recognizes the importance to successful RMB internationalization of meeting the transparency standards of other major reserve currencies. The United States supports China’s commitment to implement further financial and capital market reforms, and accordingly the United States reiterates its support for the inclusion of the RMB in the SDR basket provided the currency meets the IMF’s existing criteria in its SDR review. Both countries commit to respect the IMF’s procedures and process in the SDR review, and to enhance their communication on this issue.
o The United States and China look forward to continuing to discuss mechanisms to facilitate renminbi trading and clearing in the United States.
o The United States and China welcome the important progress that has been made in the negotiation of new international guidelines on officially supported export credits since the establishment of the International Working Group on Export Credits (IWG) through a joint high level commitment in 2012. The United States and China reaffirm their support for IWG guideline coverage of official export credit support provided by or on behalf of a government, including, but not limited to, official export credit support provided by official export credit policy financial institutions, and look forward to further discussing the scope of the guideline coverage at the next IWG meetings in October. The United States and China reaffirm that the guidelines should help ensure that governments complement commercial export financing, while promoting international trade.
· The United States supports China’s presidency of the G-20 in 2016 and looks forward to working closely with China to promote strong, sustainable and balanced global growth. The two sides support the G-20’s important role as the premier forum for strengthening international economic cooperation and coordination. The two sides are committed to working closely with other G-20 members (i) to strengthen macroeconomic policy cooperation to address the shortfall in global aggregate demand and the slow and uneven global recovery by promoting pro-growth fiscal and monetary policies, (ii) to increase potential growth rates through structural reforms and innovation, support a strong G-20 trade and investment agenda, and promote international trade and investment as engines of global growth, (iii) to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, (iv) to enhance dialogue and cooperation on the policy framework for infrastructure lending, including on environmental standards, (v) to phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies by a date certain, and (vi) to strengthen cooperation to assist at-risk states to prevent, detect and respond to infectious disease threats.
· The United States and China recognize the positive progress of the ongoing bilateral investment treaty (BIT) negotiation. The Leaders reaffirm as a top economic priority the negotiation of a high standard BIT that reflects a shared commitment to the objectives of non-discrimination, fairness, and transparency, that effectively facilitates and enables market access and market operation, and that represents on each side an open and liberalized investment regime. In light of the progress made in the BIT negotiations and both sides’ improved negative list proposals in September, the United States and China commit to intensify the negotiations and to work expeditiously to conclude the negotiation of a mutually beneficial treaty that meets these high standards.
· The U.S. side reiterated its commitment to encourage and facilitate exports of commercial high technology items to China for civilian-end users and for civilian-end uses. Both sides commit to continue detailed and in-depth discussion of the export control issues of mutual interest within the U.S.-China High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group.
· The United States and China commit to limit the scope of their respective national security reviews of foreign investments (for the United States, the CFIUS process) solely to issues that constitute national security concerns, and not to generalize the scope of such reviews to include other broader public interest or economic issues. The United States and China commit that their respective national security reviews apply the same rules and standards under the law to each investment reviewed, regardless of country of origin. When an investment poses a national security risk, the United States and China are to use their respective processes to address the risk as expeditiously as possible, including through targeted mitigation rather than prohibition whenever reasonably possible. The national security review of each country is applicable only to investments completed after such review process is established. Once an investment has completed the national security review process of either country, the investment generally should not be subject to review again if the parties close the investment as reviewed under the respective national security review process. In their respective national security reviews, the United States and China commit not to use information, provided by entities not party to an investment, for the purpose, unrelated to national security, of promoting the commercial interests of a competitor of a party to that investment. The United States and China commit to continue exchanging views on issues regarding their respective national security reviews in the future, including the scope of each country’s national security review process and the role in each country’s national security review process for entities not party to an investment.
· The United States welcomes investment from all countries, including China. The United States commits to maintain an open investment environment for Chinese investors, including state-owned enterprises, as with investors from other countries. The United States reaffirms its open investment policy and a commitment to treat all investors in a fair and equitable manner under the law. The United States and China commit to continue to communicate on bilateral investment issues, to promote development of bilateral investment.
· The two sides welcome the promotion of U.S.-China sub-national economic and trade and investment cooperation. In that vein, U.S. Department of Commerce and the Chinese Ministry of Commerce endeavor to complete a memorandum of understanding highlighting the priority that each agency places on facilitating sub-national economic, trade, and investment cooperation at this year’s U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade. As an example of such cooperation already taking place, the two sides are heartened by the role the Trade and Investment Cooperation Joint Working Groups established between Chinese provinces and cities and the U.S. states of California, Iowa, Texas, Michigan, and Washington and the city of Chicago and welcome the establishment of similar mechanisms.
· The United States and China affirm the positive role that Select Reverse Trade Missions play in introducing U.S. advanced technologies to projects of mutual interest and promoting bilateral trade towards a more balanced direction. Both sides affirm that Select Reverse Trade Missions are conducive to promoting cooperation of both countries’ enterprises in priority areas including energy, environment, healthcare, aviation and agriculture, which serves the common interests of the United States and China. Based on the discussions at the 7th Strategic and Economic Dialogue, the Ministry of Commerce of China and the U.S. Trade and Development Agency commit to organize two targeted Select Reverse Trade Missions that bring two Chinese delegations to the United States to introduce them to U.S. goods and services, consistent with U.S. laws and policies, related to green infrastructure and green construction, including green engineering and design, green building and building efficiency, construction waste recycling, distributed energy, and smart city construction.
· The United States and China highly value the important role the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) plays in promoting bilateral economic relations and expanding mutually beneficial cooperation. Both countries are to ensure the success of the 26th JCCT by making progress on key trade matters of their business communities.
· Technology is one of the pillars of the bilateral economic relationship between the United States and China. Creating the conditions for expanded two-way trade and investment in the technology sector and avoiding measures that restrict it are critical to sustaining positive momentum in the economic relationship between our countries.
o Both countries affirm the value of adopting technology-product international standards that have been developed in an open, transparent, market-driven, and balanced manner that allow for due process. Furthermore, both countries recognize that industry’s participation in standards development without undue government influence is fundamental to rapid innovation and technology development.
o Both countries affirm the importance of competition policy approaches that ensure fair and non-discriminatory treatment of entities and that avoid the enforcement of competition law to pursue industrial policy goals.
o Both countries commit that generally applicable measures to enhance information and communication technology cybersecurity in commercial sectors (ICT cybersecurity regulations) should be consistent with WTO agreements, be narrowly tailored, take into account international norms, be nondiscriminatory, and not impose nationality-based conditions or restrictions, on the purchase, sale, or use of ICT products by commercial enterprises unnecessarily.
o Both countries affirm that generally applicable measures regulating technology products in the commercial sector benefit from meaningful consultation with the private sector, governments, and other stakeholders to encourage innovative, flexible, and cost-effective solutions.
o The United States and China affirm the importance of developing and protecting intellectual property, including trade secrets, and commit not to advance generally applicable policies or practices that require the transfer of intellectual property rights or technology as a condition of doing business in their respective markets.
o Both countries affirm that states should not conduct or knowingly support misappropriation of intellectual property, including trade secrets or other confidential business information with the intent of providing competitive advantages to their companies or commercial sectors. Both countries affirm that states and companies should not by illegal methods make use of technology and commercial advantages to gain commercial benefits.
· The United States and China commit to conduct high-level and expert discussions commencing in early 2016 to provide a forum to support and exchange views on judicial reform and identify and evaluate the challenges and strategies in implementing the rule of law. U.S. participants are to include leading members of the U.S. judiciary, U.S. government legal policy experts, and officials from the Departments of Commerce and Justice and the Office of the United States Trade Representative. Chinese participants are to include officials from the Central Leading Group on Judicial Reform, leading members of the Chinese judiciary, and Chinese government legal policy experts. This dialogue is to result in an improvement in the transparency and predictability of the business environment. This dialogue does not replace, duplicate or weaken existing regular bilateral legal and human rights dialogues between the United States and China.
· With strengthening policies to promote agricultural innovation and food security and to advance sustainable development as the themes of the Strategic Agricultural Innovation Dialogue (SAID), the two sides discussed food security, agricultural biotechnology, big data and information technology innovation, environmental management and sustainable development, agricultural and support programs, and plans for future bilateral dialogue and cooperation. Both countries commit to strengthen cooperation and create an enabling environment for agricultural innovation in the two countries and the world at large.
· China’s Minister of Agriculture and the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture held a bilateral meeting on agricultural cooperation and renewed the Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Agriculture of the United States of America and the Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China on Cooperation in Agriculture and Related Fields, to promote comprehensive, sustained, and balanced development of agricultural cooperation between both countries.
· The United States and China conducted in-depth discussions on the administration of agricultural biotechnology, and committed to further improve approval processes. Both sides reaffirmed the importance of implementing timely, transparent, predictable, and science-based approval processes for products of agricultural biotechnology, which are based on international standards. Both sides committed to strengthen policy formulation and information exchange, share experience in and practices of research and development, regulatory administration, and safety approval of agricultural biotechnology; further revise and improve regulation, based on comprehensive consultations with domestic and international stakeholders; and, enhance capabilities in safety administration and safety approval of agricultural biotechnology products.
· The United States and China reiterate their support for efforts to enhance the connection between their financial markets, consistent with their respective laws and requirements.
· The Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) of the United States and China are to sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU) concerning cooperation in the exchange of information related to money laundering and terrorist financing. According to the MOU, the two FIUs commit to cooperate on the collection, analysis and exchange of financial information related to money laundering, terrorist financing, and related crimes on a reciprocal basis.
· The United States and China acknowledge that green finance can be of great significance to environmental protection, pollution reduction, and sustainable development. Both sides welcome efforts that further green finance and cooperation in this field.
The United States and China Issue Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change with New DomesticPolicy Commitments and a Common Vision for an Ambitious Global Climate Agreement in Paris
On the occasion of President Xi’s State Visit to Washington, D.C., the United States and China today marked another major milestone in their joint leadership in the fight against climate change with the release of a U.S.-China Joint PresidentialStatement on Climate Change. The Statement, which builds on last November’s historic announcement by President Obama andPresident Xi of ambitious, respective post-2020 climate targets, describes a common vision for a new global climate agreement to be concluded in Paris this December. The Statement also includes significant domestic policy announcements and commitments to global climate finance, demonstrating the determination of both countries to act decisively to achieve the goals set last year.
· Common vision for the Paris climate agreement – As part of their commitment to a successful and ambitious Paris outcome, the two countries articulated a set of shared understandings for the agreement, including on the importance of a successful agreement that ramps-up ambition over time, pointing toward a low-carbon transformation of the global economy this century. They agreed on the need for an enhanced transparency system to build mutual trust and confidence and promote effective implementation including through reporting and review of action and support in an appropriate manner, and made new progress on the issue of differentiation between developed and developing countries.
· Ambitious domestic policy announcements – China confirmed today that it plans to launch in 2017 a national emission trading system covering power generation, steel, cement, and other key industrial sectors, as well as implement a “green dispatch” system to favor low-carbon sources in the electric grid. These announcements complement the recentfinalization of the U.S. Clean Power Plan, which will reduce emissions in the U.S. power sector by 32% by 2030. Both countries are developing new heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency standards, to be finalized in 2016 and implemented in 2019. Both countries are also stepping up their work to phase down super-polluting hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
· Breaking new ground on climate finance – Looking beyond their shores, the two countries announced further steps to help accelerate the transition to low-carbon development internationally, including a new climate finance commitment by China of CNY 20 billion ($3.1 billion) to help developing countries combat climate change and new steps to control public support for high carbon activities. The two countries also re-affirmed their commitment to bilateral cooperation, both at the federal and sub-national levels.
Building a Common Vision for the Paris Agreement
Presidents Obama and Xi are committed to an ambitious outcome at the Paris climate conference and have articulated a concrete set of shared understandings for the Paris agreement.
On mitigating the impact of climate change, the two leaders agreed on three elements of a package to strengthen the ambition of the Paris outcome. First, they recognized that the emissions targets andpolicies that nations have put forward are crucial steps in a longer-range effort to transition to low-carbon economies and agreed that those policies should ramp up over time in the direction of greaterambition. Second, they underscored the importance of countries developing and making available mid-century strategies for the transition to low-carbon economies, mindful of the below 2 degrees Celsius global temperature goal. Third, they emphasized the need for the low-carbon transformation of the global economy this century.
The leaders agreed on the importance of an enhanced transparency system to build mutual trust and confidence and promote effective implementation including through reporting and review of action and support in an appropriate manner, and agreed that such a system should provide flexibility to those developing countries that need it in light of their capacities.
The leaders also made new progress on the issue of differentiation, including by reaffirming their commitment to an ambitious agreement in 2015 that reflects the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances,and embeds differentiation in the relevant elements of the agreement in a manner appropriate to each individual element. They also agreed that adaptation needs to be elevated in the international talks,and that it is a key component of the long-term global response to climate change.
On financial assistance for developing countries, in addition to specific new climate finance announcements, the two sides reiterated the 2020 climate finance mobilization goal that developed countries committed.